Introduction This framework summarizes the recommended components of a comprehensive dietary sodium reduction program, and provides links to existing implementation tools, examples of successful programs and other resources. It is designed to be used by governments and their partners in the planning, development and revision of dietary sodium reduction programs. It can also be used […]


Governance A systematic and coordinated national strategy is the best way to make meaningful reductions in sodium consumption across the population. This section outlines the key steps required to develop and lead a strategic plan for sodium reduction, engage key stakeholders and decisionmakers, and minimize conflicts of interest.   Develop a Comprehensive Strategic Plan A […]


Surveillance A comprehensive strategic plan for sodium reduction will require a robust surveillance strategy to monitor key sodium indicators, evaluate progress and impact and optimize the plan over time. Data should be made publicly accessible in order to ensure transparency and hold the government accountable to its goals. A comprehensive strategic plan for sodium reduction […]

Interventions for Packaged Food

Interventions for Packaged Food Addressing sodium consumption from packaged foods is an important component of a salt reduction strategy where packaged food consumption is high or growing. Regulatory approaches are typically most effective for reducing sodium in packaged foods (Hyseni 2017). Multiple strategies exist for reducing sodium intake from packaged foods, including setting targets to […]

Interventions for Food Prepared Outside the Home

Interventions for Food Prepared Outside the Home Sodium intake from food prepared outside the home—such as from canteens, restaurants and street vendors—is increasing in many countries, as people have less time to prepare food at home and more income to spend on prepared food. Reducing sodium in these environments can be challenging, as the industry […]

Interventions for Sodium Added in the Home

Interventions for Sodium Added in the Home There are few effective programs to reduce dietary sodium in populations where the major source is sodium added at home. Most interventions to date have relied primarily on education; however, educational programs are often resource intensive and, on their own, unlikely to meaningfully reduce population sodium intake, especially […]

Appendices & Acknowledgments 

Appendices The following sections include appendices to and acknowledgements for the Resolve to Save Lives Sodium Reduction Framework. Appendix 1. Sodium reduction program checklist Download Appendix 1 (.xlsx)   Appendix 2. Example content of a situational analysis for preparing a sodium reduction strategy The WHO describes a situational analysis as “an assessment of the current […]


Introduction This bibliography is intended as a resource to support the design and implementation of national sodium reduction programs, and is useful for policy development, surveillance of population sodium sources and intake, and implementation of sodium reduction efforts. The aim is to provide a brief overview of the scientific basis of key aspects of sodium […]

Overview of Sodium Reduction

Overview of Sodium Reduction He FJ, MacGregor GA. A comprehensive review on salt and health and current experience of worldwide salt reduction programmes. Journal of Human Hypertension. 2009 Jun;23(6):363. Salt consumption is likely the major factor for increasing population blood pressure. Multiple studies show that populations with successful reductions in salt consumption also reduced blood […]

Science of Salt Reduction

Science of Salt Reduction Overwyk KJ, Quader ZS, Maalouf J, et al. Dietary Sodium Intake and Health Indicators: A Systematic Review of Published Literature between January 2015 and December 2019. Adv Nutr. 2020;11(5):1174-1200. This systematic review evaluates recent literature on the association between salt intake and health outcomes. Most studies published since 2015 do not […]