Introduction This bibliography is intended as a resource to support the design and implementation of national sodium reduction programs, and is useful for policy development, surveillance of population sodium sources and intake, and implementation of sodium reduction efforts. The aim is to provide a brief overview of the scientific basis of key aspects of sodium […]

Overview of Sodium Reduction

Overview of Sodium Reduction He FJ, MacGregor GA. A comprehensive review on salt and health and current experience of worldwide salt reduction programmes. Journal of Human Hypertension. 2009 Jun;23(6):363. Salt consumption is likely the major factor for increasing population blood pressure. Multiple studies show that populations with successful reductions in salt consumption also reduced blood […]

Science of Salt Reduction

Science of Salt Reduction Overwyk KJ, Quader ZS, Maalouf J, et al. Dietary Sodium Intake and Health Indicators: A Systematic Review of Published Literature between January 2015 and December 2019. Adv Nutr. 2020;11(5):1174-1200. This systematic review evaluates recent literature on the association between salt intake and health outcomes. Most studies published since 2015 do not […]


Surveillance The following sections discuss surveillance for both sodium intake and sources of sodium in the food supply. Measuring Dietary Sodium Intake Spot urine vs. 24-hour urine for population values Spot urine samples are much easier to collect and require far fewer resources than the gold standard, 24-hour urine method. This section looks at evidence […]


Interventions The following sections address high-impact interventions for sodium reduction. Overall Summary of Interventions Ide N, Ajenikoko A, Steele L, et al. Priority Actions to Advance Population Sodium Reduction. Nutrients. 2020;12(9):2543. High impact sodium reduction strategies are ones that are (1) scalable and sustainable, (2) have evidence of effectiveness or if there is no strategy proven […]

Nutrient Profile Modeling (Added November 2022)

Nutrient Profile Modeling (Added November 2022) Nutrient profile models (NPMs) classify or rank food and drink products according to their nutritional composition and can be used to identify foods which are in excess of critical nutrients such as sugars, sodium, and saturated fats. NPMs can underpin a variety of nutrition policy interventions, such as marketing […]

Appendix 1: Sodium Conversion Values

Appendix 1: Sodium Conversion Values Salt Sodium Grams Teaspoons mgs mmols 6 1 2300* 100* 5 NA 2000* 87 0.0585 NA 23 1 2.5* NA 1000 43.5 1 NA 394 17.1